/ #javascript #typescript 

What is the "?." JavaScript/TypeScript operator

In JavaScript and TypeScript, the “?.” operator is called optional chaining.

It works in a similar fashion to the . (chaining) operator, except that it short-circuits instead of causing an error when a value is null or undefined.

That means const obj = {}; console.log(obj.hello?.world); will log undefined (the value of obj.hello) instead of throwing a TypeError: obj.hello is undefined that console.log(obj.hello.world); would cause.

Table of Contents

Using “?.” (optional chaining) in JavaScript/TypeScript

“?.” (optional chaining) can be used in the following environments.

Browser Support as of 5th November 2020, see the compatibility table on MDN. It’s been supported since Chrome/Chrome for Android/Edge 80, Firefox 74, Safari 13.1, Safari for iOS 14.

JavaScript Optional Chaining (?.) operator compatibility - supported in Chrome 86, Firefox 80, Edge 86, Safari/Safari iOS 14

“?.” (optional chaining) is also supported in Node 14+

“?.” (optional chaining) in unsupported environment

“?.” (optional chaining), can be compiled for use in unsupported environments. These include Node <14 (12, 13), Internet Explorer 11, Firefox/Opera for Android and Samsung Internet.

It can be compiled using Babel:

TypeScript 3.7+ includes optional chaining (?.) syntax transformation.

Examples of “?.” (optional chaining) in JavaScript/TypeScript

A simple example of the optional chaining (?.) operator is the following, where we have a user variable, that can be null/undefined and we want to access the username:

function getUserName(user) {
  return user?.name

Without optional chaining, we would have done something like the following:

function getUserName(user) {
  return user && user.name;

Optional chaining (?.) can also be useful when access the DOM, for example, accessing an input’s value in JavaScript, in this case, thanks to optional chaining (?.) event if an input with name=email is not found, the application will not crash, we’ll just get inputValue set to null.

const inputValue = document.querySelector('input[name=email]')?.value;

The equivalent scenario in TypeScript would be:

const inputValue: string = document.querySelector<HTMLInputElement>('input[name=email]')?.value;

Photo by Pocky Lee on Unsplash


Hugo Di Francesco

Co-author of "Professional JavaScript", "Front-End Development Projects with Vue.js" with Packt, "The Jest Handbook" (self-published). Hugo runs the Code with Hugo website helping over 100,000 developers every month and holds an MEng in Mathematical Computation from University College London (UCL). He has used JavaScript extensively to create scalable and performant platforms at companies such as Canon, Elsevier and (currently) Eurostar.

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